Energy Systems > Biyogaz Santralleri




Biogas is a mixture of gases which originate from different anaerobic processes and whose main constituents are CH4 and CO2. The amount of these two gases in the total biogas is 98%, while the other 2% of the biogas, except H2S, H2O, N2, O2, H2, NH3 methane, constitute 2% of the biogas. Depending on the source, biogas is also known by different trade names; landfill gas, sewage gas and fertilizer gas. The type of gas composition depends on the type of waste, digestion time and other process operating conditions. Table 2.1 presents the daily fertilizer amount, the water content at the end, the amount of biogas produced as a result of the biological treatment, and the dilution ratios made with tap water when feeding the reactors, based on the live fish. For biogas production, the following four components must be present.

Organic Substance
Anaerobic Environment



Organic matter is the nutrient required for methane-producing bacteria. The most important source of organic matter required for biogas production is animal farms and agricultural areas. In addition, wastes such as garbage and wastewater from the treatment plant are sources of organic matter for biogas production.


Biogas is a gas mixture with flammable characteristics that result in the decomposition of organic wastes in an oxygen-free environment. In its composition, it contains 60-70% methane (CH4), 30-40% carbon dioxide (CO2), 0-2% hydrogen sulphide nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2). The animal and vegetable wastes, which are called organic wastes, are usually either directly burned or given as fertilizer to agricultural areas. Generally, it is more common to use these wastes in the cold regions for the heat production. It is not possible to produce the desired amount of heat by incineration of waste, and it is not possible to use remaining ashes as fertilizer after heat production. However, when biogas is obtained from these organic wastes, the remaining wastes also allow to be recycled as a quality fertilizer. Substances such as oil, protein, carbohydrate and cellulose contained in plant and animal wastes are broken down in anaerobic conditions. These materials are taken by methan bacteria. Methane bacterias make their metabolism wastes toxic to acid bacteria.

In order to be able to carry out this task, they also cause extracellular metabolic activity and secrete many enzymes out of the cell. These enzymes also break down the substances mentioned. The additives of the enzymes and their acids, glycerol, aminoacids, peptides, monosaccharides, disaccharides are broken down by acid-forming special bacteria to acetic acid. These bacteria require oxygen and carbon while producing the energy they need for their life. the remaining oxygen is used to prepare the oxygen-free environment, which is absolutely necessary for methane bacteria.When dissolved oxygen does not stay in the environment, it starts to use molecularly dependent oxygen. Meanwhile, it converts the molecules formed during hydrolysis to simpler molecules. In the metering phase, methane bacteriums acid and similar products break down to CO 2 and CH 4. Methane constitutive bacteria live in mutual assistance. The enzymes, acids and proteins secreted by acid-forming bacteria enable the conversion of proteins and amino acids into ammonium salts, and methane-forming bacteria provide nitrogen requirements from these salts. Methanogenic bacteria greatly affect the chemical reaction. If the bacteria in the fermentation are small, the gas production is also low. The chemical formation in the fermentation comes from two important stages. The first produces bacterial complex organic materials (decays), the second produces a variety of bacterial organisms called methanogenic microorganisms. If these bacteria enter the reaction without growing or matured on the cellular material in the waste used, methane production does not occur and the reaction stops. Microorganisms that convert organic wastes into methane gas in nature in nature are found in various places in the marshes, in the lakes of the lakes, in the bowels, in the intestines of the ruminants, and in the rumen of the specimens.

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